Journey into the heart of a Japanese woman’s photography (日本語付き)

Coming across my favorite photography might be a result of accident. In other word, not consciously looking for your favorite photography would be the shortest way to meet good photography. When I first saw a series of Portrait of Second-hand Clothes which Yuki Onodera took photograph, many stuff fully moved me without prior knowledge of her background. At the beginning of 90’s in Japan it happened that many women photographers appeared. New term so-called “girl photograph” came into being against male-dominated photography community. Along with like this historical background, Yuki Onodera made a debut as photographer. Despite she was born in Tokyo and grew up in Japan, latterly in 1993 began to work based in Paris. Yuki Onodera tells the reason why one artist working in Europe. Europe has been comprised of many different countries and cultures. And Paris has functioned as crossroads which mean that many people in Europe passing through Paris. Furthermore she makes a point that it’s important for artists to view native country through being as foreigner.

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Through seeing her photograph many people grasp her works as mysterious. It has been referred in her own words that there’re parts of vague at the process of her work. It would be hard to explain it though, she tries to pick it up sensuously. With the passing of the years it sometimes happens that she finally calls to her mind that idea contained like that meaning she’s never came up with at the process. That’s one that meaning of idea sometimes comes after.

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It also comes to appear her sensitive part at the process of a series of Portrait of Second-hand Clothes when she shortly moved to Paris. She tells the story about its background. When she was thinking about photographic subject which is not Portrait but something different, she grasped second-hand cloth as feel like human’s shell. At the same time it took place that Christian Boltanski who is representative of french contemporary artist exhibited his works used a pile of second-hand cloth, she got herself down to his exhibition. At his show a bag was being sold 10-franc, spectator can leave with full of second-hand cloth in the bag. That is art installation that second-hand clothes assembled over the world are carried to another different place. She put its second-hand cloth hung with support like wire by the window of her apartment.

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Through browsing her working process, opposed to my first impression that I see her work having lyrical description, she is interested in photograph in itself than making image. She tells that she explores that photograph is deeply influencing our knowledge and perception. At the same time two questions have appeared: what is photography, and what can be done through it? I thought I step into different dimension of photography not dimension of making image.

Written by Ryota Umemura  for International Foundation for Women Artists.
Learn more about Yuki Onodera here.

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Written in Japanese :

私にとって好きな写真と出会うことは、偶然の産物が生み出すものかもしれない。他の言葉で言い換えると、意識的に好きな写真を探さないことが素敵な写真に出会う近道だろう。オノデラユキの「古着のポートレート」に初めて出会った時、予備知識なしに私の心を動かしました。90年代の初頭、日本に数多くの女性フォトグラファーが誕生し、男性が支配していたフォトグラファーの世界に対し、その新しい潮流を表わす言葉としてガールズフォトが生まれました。このような時代背景をもとに、オノデラユキは写真家としてデビューします。

彼女は東京で生まれ育ちますが、1993年にパリを拠点に活動し始めます。ここで活動初期からパリを拠点に活動する彼女にとって、アーティストとしてヨーロッパや海外で活動する理由を述べています。ヨーロッパは多様な国と文化で構成され、パリは多くの人が通過するクロスロードとしての機能を持ち合わせ、また自分が育った国を客観視することは、ものづくりをする人にとって必要であると語っています。彼女の作品を見た多くの人は、オノデラユキの作品を「謎」や「不思議さ」として捉えている。また彼女の言葉の中にも作品を制作していく過程で、自分でも曖昧で説明できない部分があり、感覚的に選んでいることがあり、何年か経ってこんな意味も含まれていたのだとようやく思い当たることがあると語っています。

パリに拠点を移した直後に制作された「古着のポートレート」のプロセスにも彼女の感覚的な部分が見えてきます。ポートレートではなく、何か違うものでと考えている時、人間の抜け殻になるような感じとして古着が目に付いたと彼女が作品制作の始まりについて語っています。またその同時期にフランスを代表する現代アーティストのクリスチャン・ボルタンスキーが古着を使った展覧会を開催し、そこに彼女は足を運びます。会場では10フランで袋が販売され、古着を詰めて帰れる。世界各国から集められた古着が、また違う場所へと散っていくというインスタレーションである。彼女はこの会場から持ち帰った古着を針金のような支持体にかけて、アパートメントの窓際に置いて写真を撮っていきました。

彼女の制作過程を通し、私が思い描いた彼女の作品から感じたリリカルさとは反対に、彼女の写真に対する見方はイメージ創出よりも写真それ自体に興味があります。それは、私たちの知識、認識に写真が大きく影響を与えていることに対する探求であると彼女は語っています。写真とは何か、 写真を通して何が可能か、私はイメージ創出としての写真とは別の世界に足を踏み入れたのだと思う。

Written by Ryota Umemura  for International Foundation for Women Artists.
Learn more about Yuki Onodera here.

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Valeria Thomas, art and plastic

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Recycling is an essential part of her life.

Valeria Thomas, French artist,passionate of melted plastic , began working with plastic bags in 2002 with the challenge of making “something” with the many bags that can not be recycled and are declared “public enemy No.1” for the environment.

And after a few trials with the iron… it melts. And it’s beautiful!

Valeria then splurged  into the creation of small objects, starting with jewelry, then larger pieces, then assembling them with the sewing machine, welding them, molding them. She creates fashion accessories,house decorations and real pictures. Her latest creations are sculptures of jellyfish, with this wonderful material.

A network of supporters has formed around her project in the city of Les Lilas (near Paris) where she lives. She collects bags sorted by color, cutting them, composes and overlaps and melts them with the heat of the iron!

The resulting surfaces are bold colors , graphic. Renewing her original profession : textile design.

Today, plastic bags are rarer in France, it’s true, and that’s good for the environment! However, ValeriaThomas still has a few years of recycling ahead of her… And when they disappeared completely ? She will do something else!

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La récup fait partie de sa vie depuis toujours !

Valéria Thomas, artiste française, passionnée de plastique fondu, commence en 2002 avec le défi de fabriquer « quelque chose » avec les nombreux sacs plastiques qui, non recyclables sont déclarés « ennemis publics n°1 » pour l’environnement !

Et après quelques essais avec un fer à repasser… ça fond. Et c’est beau !
Valéria se lance alors dans la création d’objets de petite taille, à commencer par des bijoux. Puis des surfaces plus grandes, modelées ensuite en les cousant, en les soudant, les moulant. Elle réalise alors des accessoires de mode, de décoration, puis de vrais tableaux. À présent, ses dernières creations sont des sculptures de méduses, avec ce merveilleux matériau.

Un véritable réseau se forme autour de son projet dans la ville des Lilas (près de Paris) où elle habite. Elle récupère des sacs qu’elle trie ensuite par couleur, découpe, compose et superpose, puis fais fondre à la chaleur d’un fer à repasser !
Les surfaces obtenues sont solides et naturellement colorées, graphiques. Ainsi elle renoue avec son métier d’origine : le design textile.

Aujourd’hui les sacs plastique se font plus rares, c’est vrai, et c’est tant mieux pour l’environnement ! Cependant, Valéria Thomas a encore quelques belles années de récup devant elle… Et lorsqu’ils auront totalement disparu ? Elle fera autre chose !

valeriathomasplastiquefondu.blogspot.fr

Statistics about female in the art and culture industry in Korea

The Condition of Women in the art and culture industry in Korea

By Jihye You, Jiin Kim
These statistics about the condition of women artists in Korea are taken from 2 research papers in 2007 and 2010; Artists compared with total workforce, gender ratio of artists, percent of Korean Artists Who Are Female, age-specific employment by gender, and the average monthly income by gender.
If you see these statistics, you will find women artists in Korea need help, similar to the U.S, and understand their condition.

Artists Compared with Total Workforce

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Gender Ratio of Artists

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In Korea, Economically active population is 39,598,000. The total workforce is 23,749,700 and artists are 651,736.

Percent of Korean Artists Who Are Female

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In the field of arts, the proportion of women in the arts is 42%. The highest percentage, 86%, of female artists is translators. (In Korea, translators are considered artists.) Fashion designers were second, followed by writers and authors. Only 9.2% of Architects and 12.7% photographers are women.

Age-specific Employment of Male Artists

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Age-specific Employment of Female Artists

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This graph shows the percentages if the total of male artists and female artists is 100 respectively. The proportion of female artists begins to decline significantly after 20s. On the other hand, male artists are widespread in 20s to 50s. It shows that it’s hard to survive in the workplace as a woman in Korea.

The Average Monthly Income for Male Artists

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The Average Monthly Income for Female Artists

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This graph shows the percentages if the total of male artists and female artists is 100 respectively. The average monthly income includes wage and extra income. Female artists are predominantly underpaid. The percentage of high-income women is very low. It shows that there is still a gender wage differentials in Korea.

The Average Monthly Income of Artists by Gender

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Female artists, on average, earn 69% of what a male artist would earn for the same work. The difference in monthly income between men and women is 1165.5 dollars.

Source:

2010 Statistics of Artists in the workforce by Gender DB (2010성별문화인력통계DB), 2010, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Republic of Korea.
A basic study on jobs market analysis of the arts(예술분야 고용시장 분석 기초연구), 2007, Yang Geon Yeol & Korea Culture and Tourism Institute, Republic of Korea

Statistics about female in film industry in U.S.

The Condition of Women in Film in the United States

By Jihye You
These statistics about the condition of women in Film industry are taken from 2 research papers in 2013 by Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D.; The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Employment of Women on the Top 250 Films of 2013 and it’s a Man’s (Celluloid) World: On-Screen Representations of Female Characters in the Top 100 Films of 2013.
The first research paper has tracked women’s employment as directors, writers, executive producers, producers, editors, and cinematographers working on the top 250 (domestic) grossing films for the last 16 years. The second research paper reports the findings of a content analysis of over 2,300 characters appearing in the top grossing films of 2013.

Percentages of Employment in Key Behind-the-Scenes Roles* by Gender

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From 1998 to 2013, men employed in Key-Behind-the-Scenes Roles have been over 80%, on the other hand, women accounted for less than 20%. In 2013, women comprised 16% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors.

Percentages of Women Employed Behind the Scenes on Top 250 Films by Role

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6% of directors, 10% of writers, 15% of executive producers, 25% of producers, 17% of editors and 3% of cinematographers were women on the top 250 domestic grossing films of 2013.
A historical comparison of women employment in 2013 and 1998 reveals that the percentages of women directors, writers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers have decreased. The percentage of producers has increased slightly.
A historical comparison of women employment in 2013 and 2012 reveals that the proportions of women directors, writers, executive producers, and editors have declined. The percentage of women producers has remained the same. The proportion of women cinematographers has grown slightly.
According to the second research paper, female characters remained dramatically under-represented as protagonists, major characters, and speaking (major and minor) characters in the top grossing films of 2013. Females comprised 15% of protagonists, 29% of major characters, and 30% of all speaking characters.
Only 13% of the top 100 films featured equal numbers of major female and male characters, or more major female characters than male characters.

 

 

 Historical Comparison of Percentages of Female and Male Characters as Protagonists3

In 2013, only 15% of all clearly identifiable protagonists were female (up 4% from 2011, down 1% from 2002), 71% are male, and 14% are male/female ensembles.

 

Comparison of Percentages of Female and Male Characters as Leaders

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In type of leader, women comprised 3% of blue-collar leaders, 11% of political leaders, 12% of criminal leaders, 14% of military leaders, 16% of white-collar leaders, and 23% of social leaders.

Source:

The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Employment of Women on the Top 250 Films of 2013 by Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D., Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film
It’s a Man’s (Celluloid) World: On-Screen Representations of Female Characters in the Top 100 Films of 2013 by Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D., Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

Statistics about female in the art and culture industry in U.S.

The Condition of Women Artists in the United States

By Jihye You, Jiin Kim
These statistics about the condition of women artists in the U.S. are taken from 2 research papers in 2005-2009 and 2011; Gender Ratio of Artists, Percent of the U.S. Artists Who Are Female, Median Wages and Salaries by Artists Occupation, Median Wages and Salaries of by Gender and Artists Occupation, Median Wages and Salaries of Full-Year/Full-Time Artists by Gender.
If you see these statistics, you can see the difference between female and male artists. Also, you will find women artists in the U.S. need help.

Gender Ratio of Artists: 2005-2009

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Percent of the U.S. Artists Who Are Female: 2005-2009

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Similar to the total labor force, the proportion of female artists is 46%. The highest percent, 77.9%, of female artists is dancers and choreographers. Writers/authors were second, followed by Designers. Only 21.2% of announcers and 24.9% architects are women.

Median Wages and Salaries by Artists Occupation: 2005-2009

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The two of best-paying artist occupations are architects and producers/directors; men compose 75 percent and 63 percent, respectively.

Median Wages and Salaries of by Gender and Artists Occupation: 2005-2009

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Among actors, architects, dancers/choreographers, designers, fine artists/art directors/animators and photographers, women earn 74~81% of what a male artist would earn for the same work. Only women musicians and other entertainers earn a little more (by $0.02 per dollar) than men.

Median Wages and Salaries of Full-Year/Full-Time Artists by Gender: 2005-2009

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Female artists, on average, earn 81% of what a male artist would earn for the same work. The difference in median wages and salaries of full-year, full-time artists between men and women is 8,923 dollars.
*Distinct Artists Occupation
Actors: stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture
Announcers: radio, television, public address systems, events
Architects: private residencies, commercial buildings, landscape architecture
Fine artists, art directors, and animators: art directors; craft artists; fine artists include: painters, sculptors, and illustrators; multimedia artists; animators
Dancers and choreographers: dancers, choreographers, and dance teachers
Designers: commercial and industrial designers; fashion designers; floral designers; graphic designers; interior designers; merchandise displayers; and set and exhibit designers
Other entertainers: circus performers; comics; jugglers; magicians; puppeteers; rodeo performers; show girls; ventriloquists, and other entertainers
 Musicians: music directors, composers, musicians, and singers
Photographers: includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists
Producers and directors: stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture production
Writers and authors: advertising writers; authors; biographers; copy writers; crossword-puzzle creators; film writers; magazine writers; novelists; playwrights; sports writers; and lyricists

Source:

2005-2009 ACS PUMS, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce
2011 Artists and Arts Workers in the United States, National Endowment for the Arts